Jalul as a Window to History


Polity
Dates
Epicenter
Written Sources
Archaeological Sources
Jalul Architectural Evidence
Jalul Ceramic Evidence
Jalul Iconographic and Epigraphic Evidence
Relevant Jalul strata and other evidence
Canaanite
Middle Bronze IIC; 1600-1550 BC
Hazor?
Tale of Sinuhe
MB evidence at Deir ‘Alla, Pella, ‘Umayri and Abu al-Kharaz
None
Chocolate on White and White Slip wares

Field A
Egyptian
Late Bronze Age; Iron Age I
Thebes,
Tanis and Rameses
Amun Temple at Karnak; Hasel 1998); Kitchen (1982; 1992); Redford (1982a;1982b)
Balu’a Stele, Shihan Warrior Stele; Merneptah Stele
None
None
20 Dynasty seal from Ramesses III

Amorite
Late Bronze Age
Heshbon/
Madaba Plains
Num 20:14- 21: 30; 33: 37-49; Dt 1-3; 29; Luke (1983); Jahn (2007)
Unidentifiable
None
Bichrome and other LB ware, including lamps and a chalice
None
Fields A, C
Hittite
Late Bronze Age
Hattusas
Num 13:29; Josh 1:4; 11:3
Ammon Airport Structure? Herr (1983)
None
None
None
Fields A, C
Reubenite
Iron Age I
Southern Gilead and the mishor
Josh 13:15-23; Judges 11:33; Herr (1999b)
An excess of 500 sites; see Herr and Clark (2009)
Iron I Wall in Field C and D; pottery;
Manasseh bowls and Reubenite Store Jars

Fields A, B, C and D
Israelite
Iron Age II
Jerusalem, Shechem, Tirzah, Samaria
Num 32:37; 2 Sam 8:2-12; 1 Chr 18:2-11; 2 Sam 10:1-19; 1 Chr 19:1-19; 2 Chr 14:25; Mesha Stele
Omride sites north of Arnon Gorge; Finkelstein (2000); Finkelstein and Lipschits (2010)
City gate and roads; Tripartite building; city wall? Water system?

Hebrew seal; Ibex seal; Goulart and Gane (2012)
Fields A, B, C, G and W
Moabite
Iron Age IIB-C
Dibon, Kir Hareseth
Mesha Stele;
2 Kgs 1:1; 3:4-5; 13:20 Is 15:4; 16:8-9; Jer 48; Ray (2003)
Dibon, Balu‘a, Khirbet el-Medeineh(s), al-Kerak, Madaba
Field G city wall and two story building
Moabite cooking pots; Field G pottery hoard

Fields A, B, C, D, G
Aram-Damascus
Iron Age IIB
Damascus
2 Kgs 10:32-33
Tall al-Rumaith




Judahite
Iron Age IIB; ca. 760-740 BC
Jerusalem
2 Kgs 14:28; 2 Chr 26:8-10; 27:5

Tripartite building?

Hebrew seal; Ibex seal; Goulart and Gane (2012)

Neo-Assyrian
Iron Age IIB-C; ca. 733-625 BC
Nimrud, Khorsabad, Nineveh
ANET: 282; Bennett (1978; 1982); Bienkowski (2000); Daviau (1997; 2001); Oded (1970); Salje (2009); Weippert (1987)
Assyrian influenced building plans at various sites

Assyrian bowl


Ammonite
Iron Age IIC through Persian
Rabbath-Ammon
Jer 40:14; 49:1-6; Herr (1999a) and Younker (1994)
Hisban, Sahab, ‘Umayri, Jawa
Late phase of Tripartite building; Gregor (2009), pillared houses, water channel
Ammonite black and painted ware; Herr (2006)
‘Aynadab seal, ostraca and bullae; (Younker 1999b; Gane 2008; Goulart and Gane 2012)
Fields A, C, D, G; Male crowned and female figurines; Horse and Rider figurines
Neo-Babylonian
Iron Age III Babylonian ca. 604-540 BC
Babylon
Josephus Ant. 10.9.7; Weippert (1987)
Nabonidas Relief at Sela’; Herr (1995)
Field C Cave? Destruction of Field G city wall?


Field C?
Persian
Iron Age III-Persian; 539-333 BC
Persepolis, Susa with Amman as the local provincial capital
Neh 2:7-19; Ezra 4:10-20; 8:36; (Bienkowski 2001; 2008; Ray 2006; Weippert 1987; Younker 2009)
See sites discussed in Ray (2006)
Large build-ings in Field C and D, pavement and semi- circular wall in Field A
Attic ware and Field D hoard

Fields A, B, C, and D; Figurines and Incense stands
Ptolemaic/ Seleucid
Hellenistic: 333-63 BC
Alexandria, Antioch
Josephus Ant 13.15.4
‘Araq al-Amir; Amman

Few sherds


Roman
Roman: ca. 50 BC-AD 325
Rome
Pliny Natural History
Decapolis cities and forts

Few sherds


Byzantine
Byzantine: AD 325-640
Constan-tinople
Numerous classical authors
Madaba, Um-al Rasas, Hisban, Ammon, Jerash
Residential units at JIV

Inscribed cross on stone slab
Field C; JIV
Umayyad
Early Islamic II: AD 750-1000
Damascus
Al-Tabari
Amman, Hisban, Desert “forts”
Residential units at JIV


JIV
Ayyubid/ Mamluk
Middle Islamic II: ca. AD 1187-1500
Cairo/ Damascus
Walker (2011)
‘Ajlun Castle; Hisban
Residential units and a possible khan with vaulted rooms (JIV)


JIV; Stone mill
Ottoman
Late Islamic II-Modern: AD 1517-1917
Istanbul/
Damascus
Ottoman tax registers: "defters"
al-Salt, forts,
Hejaz Railway and stations
Burials on tall, several structures at JIV. Khan converted into a stable


All fields


Key

Column 1 Polity: Title or name of empire or power that either controlled or exerted influence over Jalul and the
surrounding region
Column 2 Dates: Approximate dates of polity’s presence in the Levant, particularly in Trans-Jordan
Column 3 Epicenter Seat of power; the capital city or cities of polity
Column 4 Written Sources Relevant historical and epigraphic sources to polity’s control or influence over Jalul and the
surrounding region
Column 5 Archaeological Sources Archaeological evidence of polity’s regional presence (attested sites in Trans-Jordan)
Column 6 Architectural Evidence Archaeological remains relating to or contemporary with polity from Jalul and vicinity
Column 7 Ceramic Evidence Relevant ceramic evidence from Jalul and vicinity
Column 8 Iconographic Evidence Relevant iconographic and epigraphic evidence from Jalul and vicinity
Column 9 Other Evidence Relevant small finds from Jalul and vicinity


References

Bennett, Crystal- M.
1978 Some Reflections on Neo-Assyrian Influence in Transjordan. Pp. 164-71 in Archaeology in the Levant: Essays for Kathleen Kenyon, eds. Roger Moorey and Peter Parr. Warminster: Aris and Phillips.
1982 Neo-Assyrian Influence in Transjordan. Pp. 181-87 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan I, ed. Adnan Hadidi. Amman: Department of Antiquities, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Bienkowski, Piotr
2000 Transjordan and Assyria. Pp. 44-58 in The Archaeology of Jordan and Beyond: Essays in Honor of James A. Sauer, ed. Lawrence E. Stager, Joseph A. Greene, and Michael D. Coogan. Studies in the Archaeology and History of the Levant 1. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.
2001 The Iron Age and Persian Periods in Jordan. Pp. 265-74 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan VII. Amman: Department of Antiquities, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
2008 The Persian Period. Pp. 335-62 in Jordan: An Archaeological Reader, ed. Russell B. Adams. London: Equinox.

Daviau, P. M. Michèle
1997 Technological Change and Assyrian Influence at Tall Jawa, Jordan. Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies 32: 23-32.
2001 Assyrian Influence and Changing Technologies at Tall Jawa, Jordan. Pp. 214-38 in The Land that I Will Show You: Essays on the History and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East in Honour of J. Maxwell Miller, eds. J. Andrew Dearman and M. Patrick Graham. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 343. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic.

Finkelstein, Israel
2000 Omride Architecture. Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins 116: 114-38.

Finkelstein, Israel, and Lipschits, Oded
2010 Omride Architecture in Moab: Jahaz and Ataroth. Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins 126: 29-42.

Gane, Roy E.
2008 Jalul Ostracon 1. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 351: 73-84.

Gilmour, Garth, and Kitchen, Kenneth A.
2012 Pharaoh Sety II and Egyptian Political Relations with Canaan at the End of the Late Bronze Age. Israel Exploration Journal 62: 1-21.

Goulart, Christie J., and Gane, Roy E.
2012 Three Epigraphic Finds from Tall Jalul, Jordan. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 365: 27-32.

Gregor, Paul Z.
2009 A Tripartite Pillared Building in Transjordan. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 53: 9-19.

Hasel, Michael
1998 Domination and Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, ca. 1300-1185 B.C. Probleme Der Agyptologie 11. Leiden: Brill.

Herr, Larry G.
1983 The Amman Airport Structure and the Geopolitics of Ancient Transjordan. Biblical Archaeologist 46: 223-29.
1995 Wine Production in the Hills of Southern Ammon and the Founding of Tall al-‘Umayri in the Sixth Century BC. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 39: 121-25.
1999a The Ammonites in the Late Iron Age and Persian Period. Pp. 219-37 in Ancient Ammon, eds. Burton MacDonald and Randall W. Younker. Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East 17. Leiden: Brill.
1999b Tall al-‘Umayri and the Reubenite Hypothesis. Eretz-Israel 26: 64*-77* (Frank Moore Cross Volume), eds. Baruch A. Levine; Philip J. King; Joseph Naveh and Ephraim Stern. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.
2006 Black-Burnished Ammonite Bowls from Tall al’Umayri and Tall Hisban in Jordan. Pp. 525-540 in “I Will Speak the Riddles of Ancient Times”: Archaeological and Historical Studies in Honor of Amihai Mazar, eds. Aren M. Maeir and Pierre de Miroschedji. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.

Herr, Larry G., and Clark, Douglas R.
2009 From the Stone Age to the Middle Ages in Jordan: Digging up Tall al-‘Umayri. Near Eastern Archaeology 72: 68-97.

Jahn, Brit
2007 The Migration and Sedentarization of the Amorites from the Point of View of the Settled Babylonian Population. Pp. 193-209 in Representations of Political Power: Case Histories from Times of Change and Dissolving Order in the Ancient Near East, eds. Marlies Heinz and Marian H. Feldman. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.

JIV Jalul Islamic Village; JIV is a 69 acre site located just south of Tall Jalul.

Kitchen, Kenneth A.
1982 Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. Warminster: Aris & Phillips.
1992 The Egyptian Evidence on Ancient Jordan. Pp. 21-34 in Early Edom and Moab: The Beginning of the Iron Age in Southern Jordan, ed. Piotr Bienkowski. Sheffield Archaeological Monographs, 7. Sheffield: J. R. Collis.

Luke, J. Tracy
1983 “Your Father Was an Amorite” (Ezek 16:3, 45): An Essay on the Amorite Problem in OT Traditions. Pp. 221-37 in The Quest for the Kingdom of God: Studies in Honor of George E. Mendenhall, eds. Herbert B. Huffmon, Frank A. Spina, and Alberto R. W. Green. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.

Oded, Bustenay
1970 Observations on Methods of Assyrian Rule in Transjordania after the Palestinian Campaign of Tiglath-Pileser III. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 29: 177-86.
1972 The Historical Background of the Syro-Ephraimite War Reconsidered. Catholic Biblical Quarterly 34: 153-165.



Ray, Paul J.
2003 The Moabites at Tall Hisban. Pp. 202-18 in Wort und Stein: Studien zur Theologie und Archäologie Festschrift für Udo Worschech, ed. Friedbert Ninow. Beiträge zur Erforschung der Antiken Moabitis (Ard El-Kerak) 4. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
2006 Connectivity: Transjordan during the Persian Period. Pp. 75-92 in Connectivity in Antiquity: Globalization as a Long-Term Historical Process, eds. Øystein S. LaBianca and Sandra Arnold Scham. London: Equinox.

Redford, Donald B.
1982a Contact between Egypt and Jordan in the New Kingdom: Some Comments on Sources. Pp. 115-19 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan I, ed. Adnan Hadidi. Amman: Department of Antiquities.
1982b A Bronze Age Itinerary in Transjordan (Nos. 89-101 of Thutmose III’s List of Asiatic Toponyms). Journal for the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 12: 55-74.

Salje, Beate
2009 The Kingdoms of Transjordan and the Assyrian Expansion. Pp. 737-43 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan X, ed. Fawwaz al-Khraysheh. Amman: Department of Antiquities.

Strange, John
2004 Jordan between Mesopotamia and Egypt in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan VIII, ed. Fawwaz al-Khraysheh. Amman: Department of Antiquities.

Walker, Bethany J.
2011 Jordan in the Late Middle Ages: Transformation of the Mamluk Frontier. Chicago: Middle East Documentation Center.

Weippert, Manfred
1987 The Relations of the States East of the Jordan with the Mesopotamian Powers during the First Millennium BC. Pp. 97-105 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan III, ed. Adnan Hadidi. Amman: Department of Antiquities.

Younker, Randall W.
1994 Ammonites. Pp. 293-316 in Peoples of the Old Testament World, eds. Alfred J. Hoerth, Gerald L. Mattingly and Edwin M. Yamauchi. Grand Rapids: Baker.
1999a The Emergence of the Ammonites. Pp. 189-218 in Ancient Ammon, eds. Burton MacDonald and Randall W. Younker. Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East 17. Leiden: Brill.
1999b An Ammonite Seal from Tall Jalul, Jordan: The Seal of ‘Aynadab son of Zedek’il. Eretz-Israel 26: 221*-24* (Frank Moore Cross Volume), eds. Baruch A. Levine; Philip J. King; Joseph Naveh and Ephraim Stern. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.
2003 The Emergence of Ammon: A View of the Rise of Iron Age Polities from the Other Side of the Jordan. Pp. 153-76 in The Near East in the Southwest: Essays in Honor of William G. Dever, ed. Beth Alpert Nakhai. The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 58. Boston: ASOR.
2009 The Persian Period at Tall Jalul, Jordan. Eretz-Israel 29: 258*-66* (Ephraim Stern Volume), eds. Joseph Aviram, Amnon Ben-Tor, Israel Eph’al, Seymour Gitin, and Ronny Reich. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.



For Further Reading

Bikai, Patricia Maynor, and Dailey, Thomas A., eds.
1996 Madaba Cultural Heritage. Amman: American Center of Oriental Research.

Clark, Douglas R.; Herr, Larry G.; LaBianca, Øystein S.; and Younker, Randall W., eds.
2011 The Madaba Plains Project: Forty Years of Archaeological Research into Jordan’s Past. Sheffield: Equinox.

Gane, Constance; Younker, Randall W.; and Ray, Paul
2010 Madaba Plains Project: Tall Jalul 2009. Andrews University Seminary Studies 48: 165-223.

Gregor, Paul Z., and Gregor, Helena
2009 Preliminary Report on the Tall Jalūl 2007 Season: Feld A. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 53: 21-26.

al-Shqour, Reem
2009 2008 Excavations at the Islamic Village at Tall Jalūl. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 53: 35-43.

Younker, Randall W.
2007 Highlights from the Heights of Jalul. Pp. 129-35 in Crossing Jordan: North American Contributions to the Archaeology of Jordan, eds. Thomas E. Levy, P. M. Michèle Daviau, Randall W. Younker, and May Shaer. London: Equinox.

Younker, Randall W.; Gane, Constance; Gregor, Paul; Groves, Jennifer; and Ray, Paul
2009 Preliminary Report on the 2009 Season of the Madaba Plains Project: Tall Jalūl Excavations 2009. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 53: 27-34.