Umayri as a Window to Global History


Polity
Dates
Epicenter
Written Sources
Archaeological Sources
ʻUmayri Architectural Evidence
ʻUmayri Ceramic Evidence
ʻUmayri Iconographic and Inscriptional Evidence
Relevant ʻUmayri Strata and additional evidence
Canaanite
Middle Bronze IIC; 1600-1550 BC
Hazor?
Tale of Sinuhe
MB evidence at Deir ‘Alla, Jalul, Pella, Abu al-Kharaz
Moat and Rampart on the western slope of tell; wall fragments with large stones; plaster-lined water installation
MBIIC Pottery, including chocolate on white ware
None
Strata 16 and 15
Egyptian
Late Bronze Age I;
1550-1350 BC
Thebes, Tanis, Rameses
Hasel (1998); Kitchen (1992) and Redford (1982a; 1982b)
Baluʻa Stele, Shihan Warrior Stele
None
Few poss. mixed LB I sherds
None
Hiatus between stratum 15 and 14
Amorite
Late Bronze Age II
Hazor
Num 20:14- 21: 30; 33: 37-49; Dt 1-3; 29; Luke (1983); Jahn (2007)
Unidentifiable
None
Stray LB I sherds
None
Hiatus between stratum 15 and 14
Hittite
Late Bronze Age II
Hattusas
Num 13:29; Josh 1:4; 11:3
Bones of Indo-Europeans at the Amman Airport Structure; Herr (1983)
None
Local ware
None
Stratum 14
Projected beginnings of local tribal confeder-acies in Transjordan
Late Bronze Age IIB
Hazor; mostly nomadic in Transjordan
Num 21:24;
Bramlett cited by Herr and Clark (2009); Younker (1999; 2003)
LB evidence at Ammon, Jalul, Safut, Sahab, Umm ad-Dananir
Temple or palace with cult shrine; many other walls and earth layers
Large LB II pottery assem-blage; few Mycen-aean and Cypriot sherds
Sherd with LB style painting of an archer; two Asherah figurines
Stratum 14 Cultic niche and associated vessels;
Local tribal confeder-acies in Transjordan
Iron Age I
Central Trans-jordanian highlands
Josh 13:15-23; Judges 11:33; Merneptah Stele?
Possibly an excess of 500 sites; see Herr and Clark (2009)
Western defense wall with rampart and moat; five houses in Stratum 12 with very large ceramic assemblage; refuse pit with 25,000 bones; other large walls with very large stones
Rich finds including over 100 collared pithoi; Herr (1999b)
Scores of potter’s marks on pithos handles; stone seals with crude abstract or geometric shapes; base and lower legs of a bronze figurine; Inscription: Stamped Jar handle with cartouche of Thutmoses III for good luck
Strata 13-10; standing stones; house shrines; ʻUmayri’s best settlement is Stratum 12
Israelite/ Moabite in south central Transjordan highlands/ Ammonite in north
Iron Age IIA-B
Jerusalem, Shechem, Tirzah, Samaria, Amman, Dhiban?
Num 32:37; 2 Sam 8:2-12; 1 Chr 18:2-11; 2 Sam 10:1-19; 1 Chr 19:1-19; 2 Chr 14:25; 2 Kgs 1:1; 3:4-5; 13:20 Is 15:4; 16:8-9; Jer 48; Mesha Stele; Ray (2003)
Omride sites north of Wadi Mujib; Finkelstein (2000); Finkelstein and Lipschits (2010)
Field A three room house; Field M layers beneath stone cobbles
Few hand burnished, slipped sherds; moderate Iron IIB assem-blage
None
Strata 9-8
Aram-Damascus
Iron Age IIB
Damascus
2 Kgs 10:32-33
Tall ar-Rumayt
Above?
Above?
None
Stratum 8
Judahite
Iron Age IIB
Jerusalem
2 Kgs 14:28; 2 Chr 26:8-10; 27:5
Hebrew seal from Tall Jalul
Above?
Above?
None
Stratum 8
Ammonite
Iron Age IIC through Persian
Amman
Jer 40:14; 49:1-6; Herr (1993; 1999a) and Younker (1994)
Hisban, Jalul, Jawa, Sahab, Amman, ʻUmayri
Administra-tive complex and Fields B and F houses
Large pottery assem-blages from Fields A, B, F, H, and L; Herr (2006)
Inscriptions: Baʻalis seal impression; Herr (1985); and other seals and impressions; cylinder seals; numerous figurines including Pataikos from Egypt
Strata 7-6; many small finds
Neo-Assyrian
Iron Age IIB-C; ca. 733-625 BC
Nimrud, Khorsabad, Nineveh
ANET: 282; Bennett (1978; 1982); Bienkowski (2000); Daviau (1997; 2001); Oded (1970); Salje (2009); Weippert (1987)
Assyrian style building plans at various sites
Above
Very little Assyrian influenced pottery
Above
Stratum 7
Neo-Babylonian
Iron Age III- Babylonian; ca. 604-540 BC
Babylon
Josephus Ant 10.9.7
Nabonidas relief at Sela’; Herr (1995b)
Above
Above; Herr (1995a)
Babylonian style seals
Stratum 6
Persian
Iron Age III-Persian; 539-333 BC
Persepolis/Susa with Amman as the local provincial capital
Neh 2:7-19; Ezra 4:10-20; 8:36; Bienkowski (2001; 2008); Ray (2006); Weippert (1987)
See sites discussed in Ray (2006)
Additions to administra-tive complex and later walls
Above, the later levels; black-burnished pottery; ceramic rhyton; Few Attic sherds
Five provincial Ammon seal impressions written in Aramaic; numerous seals and figurines
Strata 6-5
Ptolemaic/
Seleucid
Hellenistic: 333-63 BC
Alexandria,Antioch, Damascus
Josephus Ant 13.15.4
‘Araq al-Amir, Amman
Farmstead in Field L
Small assem-blage from the farmstead
Greek tomb inscription
Stratum 4
Roman
Early Roman: ca. 50 BC-AD 135
Rome
Pliny Natural History
Decapolis cities and forts
Ritual Pool or miqveh probably from a house or farmstead
Fewer than 10 sherds
None
Stratum 3
Byzantine
AD 325-640
Constan-tinople
Numerous classical authors
Madaba, Um-al Rasas, Hisban, Amman, Jerash
Farmstead in Field F; ashlar well house; wall fragments in Field H; terracing, tombs and church at ʻUmayri East
Small assem-blage from Field F farm-stead
None
Stratum 2
Umayyad
Early Islamic I: AD 661-750
Damascus
Al-Tabari
Amman, Hisban, Desert “forts”
Topsoil agricultural activities
Very few sherds
None
Stratum 1
‘Abbasid
Early Islamic II: AD 750-1000
Baghdad
Whitcomb (2000)

Above
Above
None
Stratum 1
Ayyubid/ Mamluk
Middle Islamic II: ca. AD 1187-1500
Cairo/ Damascus
Walker (2011)
Hisban
Structures and caves at ‘Umayri North
Two sherds
None
Stratum 1
Ottoman
Late Islamic II-Modern; AD 1517-1917
Istanbul/
Damascus
‘Ajarmeh tribe and Ottoman tax registers
As-Salt, forts, Hejaz Railway and stations
Structures and caves at ‘Umayri North
Few clay pipes
None
Stratum 1
British Mandate
AD 1917-1946
London
British Mandate land registers
Tegart Forts
‘Ajarmeh settlement at Bunayat; forest planting at Amman National Park?
None
None
Stratum 1
Hashemite
1921-present
Ma’an, Amman


Widespread develop-ment; the Airport Highway
None
None
Stratum 1


Key

Column 1 Polity: Title or name of empire or power that either controlled or exerted influence over ‘Umayri and the
surrounding region
Column 2 Dates: Approximate dates of polity’s presence in the Levant, particularly in Trans-Jordan
Column 3 Epicenter Seat of power; the capital city or cities of polity
Column 4 Written Sources Relevant historical and epigraphic sources to polity’s control or influence over ‘Umayri and the
surrounding region
Column 5 Archaeological Sources Archaeological evidence of polity’s regional presence (most prominent attested sites in Trans-
Jordan)
Column 6 Architectural Evidence Archaeological remains relating to or contemporary with polity from ‘Umayri or vicinity
Column 7 Ceramic Evidence Relevant ceramic evidence from ‘Umayri or vicinity
Column 8 Iconographic Evidence Relevant iconographic and epigraphic evidence from ‘Umayri or vicinity
Column 9 Other Evidence Relevant small finds from ‘Umayri or vicinity


References

Bennett, Crystal- M.
1978 Some Reflections on Neo-Assyrian Influence in Transjordan. Pp. 164-71 in Archaeology in the Levant: Essays for Kathleen Kenyon, eds. Roger Moorey and Peter Parr. Warminster: Aris and Phillips.
1982 Neo-Assyrian Influence in Transjordan. Pp. 181-87 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan I, ed. Adnan Hadidi. Amman: Department of Antiquities, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Bienkowski, Piotr
2000 Transjordan and Assyria. Pp. 44-58 in The Archaeology of Jordan and Beyond: Essays in Honor of James A. Sauer, ed. Lawrence E. Stager, Joseph A. Greene, and Michael D. Coogan. Studies in the Archaeology and History of the Levant 1. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.
2001 The Iron Age and Persian Periods in Jordan. Pp. 265-74 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan VII. Amman: Department of Antiquities, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
2008 The Persian Period. Pp. 335-62 in Jordan: An Archaeological Reader, ed. Russell B. Adams. London: Equinox.

Daviau, P. M. Michèle
1997 Technological Change and Assyrian Influence at Tall Jawa, Jordan. Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies 32: 23-32.
2001 Assyrian Influence and Changing Technologies at Tall Jawa, Jordan. Pp. 214-38 in The Land that I Will Show You: Essays on the History and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East in Honour of J. Maxwell Miller, eds. J. Andrew Dearman and M. Patrick Graham. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 343. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic.

Finkelstein, Israel
2000 Omride Architecture. Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins 116: 114-38.

Finkelstein, Israel, and Lipschits, Oded
2010 Omride Architecture in Moab: Jahaz and Ataroth. Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins 126: 29-42.

Gilmour, Garth, and Kitchen, Kenneth A.
2012 Pharaoh Sety II and Egyptian Political Relations with Canaan at the End of the Late Bronze Age. Israel Exploration Journal 62: 1-21.

Hasel, Michael
1998 Domination and Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, ca. 1300-1185 B.C. Probleme Der Agyptologie 11. Leiden: Brill.

Herr, Larry G.
1983 The Amman Airport Structure and the Geopolitics of Ancient Transjordan. Biblical Archaeologist 46: 223-29.
1985 The Servant of Baalis. Biblical Archaeologist 48: 169-72.
1995a The Late Iron II—Persian Ceramic Horizon at Tall al-‘Umayri. Pp. 617-1 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan V, eds. Khairieh ‘Amr; Fawzi Zayadine; and Muna Zaghloul. Amman: Department of Antiquities.
1995b Wine Production in the Hills of Southern Ammon and the Founding of Tall al-‘Umayri in the Sixth Century BC. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 39: 121-25.
1999a The Ammonites in the Late Iron Age and Persian Period. Pp. 219-37 in Ancient Ammon, eds. Burton MacDonald and Randall W. Younker. Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East 17. Leiden: Brill.
1999b Tall al-‘Umayri and the Reubenite Hypothesis. Eretz-Israel 26: 64*-77* (Frank Moore Cross Volume), eds. Baruch A. Levine; Philip J. King; Joseph Naveh and Ephraim Stern. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.
2006 Black-Burnished Ammonite Bowls from Tall al’Umayri and Tall Hisban in Jordan. Pp. 525-540 in “I Will Speak the Riddles of Ancient Times”: Archaeological and Historical Studies in Honor of Amihai Mazar, eds. Aren M. Maeir and Pierre de Miroschedji. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.

Herr, Larry G., and Clark, Douglas R.
2009 From the Stone Age to the Middle Ages in Jordan: Digging up Tall al-‘Umayri. Near Eastern Archaeology 72: 68-97.

Jahn, Brit
2007 The Migration and Sedentarization of the Amorites from the Point of View of the Settled Babylonian Population. Pp. 193-209 in Representations of Political Power: Case Histories from Times of Change and Dissolving Order in the Ancient Near East, eds. Marlies Heinz and Marian H. Feldman. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.

Kitchen, Kenneth A.
1982 Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. Warminster: Aris & Phillips.
1992 The Egyptian Evidence on Ancient Jordan. Pp. 21-34 in Early Edom and Moab: The Beginning of the Iron Age in Southern Jordan, ed. Piotr Bienkowski. Sheffield Archaeological Monographs, 7. Sheffield: J. R. Collis.

Luke, J. Tracy
1983 “Your Father Was an Amorite” (Ezek 16:3, 45): An Essay on the Amorite Problem in OT Traditions. Pp. 221-37 in The Quest for the Kingdom of God: Studies in Honor of George E. Mendenhall, eds. Herbert B. Huffmon, Frank A. Spina, and Alberto R. W. Green. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.

Oded, Bustenay
1970 Observations on Methods of Assyrian Rule in Transjordania after the Palestinian Campaign of Tiglath-Pileser III. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 29: 177-86.
1972 The Historical Background of the Syro-Ephraimite War Reconsidered. Catholic Biblical Quarterly 34: 153-165.

Ray, Paul J.
2003 The Moabites at Tall Hisban. Pp. 202-18 in Wort und Stein: Studien zur Theologie und Archäologie Festschrift für Udo Worschech, ed. Friedbert Ninow. Beiträge zur Erforschung der Antiken Moabitis (Ard El-Kerak) 4. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
2006 Connectivity: Transjordan during the Persian Period. Pp. 75-92 in Connectivity in Antiquity: Globalization as a Long-Term Historical Process, eds. Øystein S. LaBianca and Sandra Arnold Scham. London: Equinox.

Redford, Donald B.
1982a Contact between Egypt and Jordan in the New Kingdom: Some Comments on Sources. Pp. 115-19 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan I, ed. Adnan Hadidi. Amman: Department of Antiquities.
1982b A Bronze Age Itinerary in Transjordan (Nos. 89-101 of Thutmose III’s List of Asiatic Toponyms). Journal for the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 12: 55-74.

Salje, Beate
2009 The Kingdoms of Transjordan and the Assyrian Expansion. Pp. 737-43 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan X, ed. Fawwaz al-Khraysheh. Amman: Department of Antiquities.

Strange, John
2004 Jordan between Mesopotamia and Egypt in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan VIII, ed. Fawwaz al-Khraysheh. Amman: Department of Antiquities.

Walker, Bethany J.
2011 Jordan in the Late Middle Ages: Transformation of the Mamluk Frontier. Chicago: Middle East Documentation Center.

Weippert, Manfred
1987 The Relations of the States East of the Jordan with the Mesopotamian Powers during the First Millennium BC. Pp. 97-105 in Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan III, ed. Adnan Hadidi. Amman: Department of Antiquities.

Whitcomb, Donald
2000 Ḥesban, Amman, and Abbasid Archaeology in Jordan. Pp. 505-15 in The Archaeology of Jordan and Beyond: Essays in Honor of James A. Sauer, ed. Lawrence E. Stager, Joseph A. Greene, and Michael D. Coogan. Studies in the Archaeology and History of the Levant 1. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.

Younker, Randall W.
1994 Ammonites. Pp. 293-316 in Peoples of the Old Testament World, eds. Alfred J. Hoerth, Gerald L. Mattingly and Edwin M. Yamauchi. Grand Rapids: Baker.
1999 The Emergence of the Ammonites. Pp. 189-218 in Ancient Ammon, eds. Burton MacDonald and Randall W. Younker. Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East 17. Leiden: Brill.
2003 The Emergence of Ammon: A View of the Rise of Iron Age Polities from the Other Side of the Jordan. Pp. 153-76 in The Near East in the Southwest: Essays in Honor of William G. Dever, ed. Beth Alpert Nakhai. The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 58. Boston: ASOR.



For Further Reading

Clark, Douglas R.; Herr, Larry G.; LaBianca, Øystein S.; and Younker, Randall W., eds.
2011 The Madaba Plains Project: Forty Years of Archaeological Research into Jordan’s Past. Sheffield: Equinox.

Herr, Larry G.
1993 Whatever Happened to the Ammonites? Biblical Archaeology Review 19/6: 26-35, 68.

Herr, Larry G., and Clark, Douglas R.
2001 Excavating the Tribe of Reuben. Biblical Archaeology Review 27/2: 36-47, 64-66.
2007 Tall al-‘Umayri through the Ages. Pp. 121-28 in Crossing Jordan: North American Contributions to the Archaeology of Jordan, eds. Thomas E. Levy, P. M. Michèle Daviau, Randall W. Younker, and May Shaer. London: Equinox.
2008 Madaba Plains Project: Excavations at Tall Al-‘Umayri, 2006. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 52: 181-202.
2009 From the Stone Age to the Middle Ages in Jordan: Digging up Tall al-‘Umayri. Near Eastern Archaeology 72: 68-97.